Essays on Apologetics


Apologetics is a branch of theological/biblical study that focuses on defending Christianity and its doctrines against critics outside the Christian faith. The word apologetics is from the Greek word apologia, meaning defense. It is used eight times in the New Testament (Acts 22:1; 25:16; 1 Cor. 9:3; 2 Cor. 7:11; Phil. 1:7, 17; 2 Tim. 4:16; and 1 Pet. 3:15). For example:

Brethren and fathers, hear my defense which I now offer to you. (Acts 22:1)

For it is only right for me to feel this way about you all, because I have you in my heart, since both in my imprisonment and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel, you all are partakers of grace with me. (Phil. 1:7)

But sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence. (1 Pet. 3:15).

The articles we have posted below on this page are from older classics on apologetics. Among the modern books on apologetics, here are a few that are recommended for further study.



Evidences of the Gospel and the Genuineness of Paul's Epistles

In his introduction to the Epistle to the Ephesians (A View of the Doctrines and Duties of the Christian Religion, in Fortynine Discourses on St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians), Joseph Lathrop gives a summary of the evidences of Christianity, with a central focus on the evidences from the conversion, preaching, and writings of the Apostle Paul. He also takes up the subject of the genuineness and authenticity of the New Testament writings.

The Immortality of the Soul

Conrad Emil Lindberg in his book Apologetics, or a System of Christian Evidence, gives 11 proofs for the immortality of the soul.

The Doctrine of Eternal Punishment

In another essay by Conrad Lindberg, we find evidence for the endlessness of future punishment.

The Right Use of Reason in Religion

Archibald Alexander's "Introduction" in A Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion demonstrates how five different classes of people who claim to use reason in assessing the Christian religion fail in their efforts.

Note: Archibald Alexander (1772-1851) was a Presbyterian theologian at Princeton Theological Seminary. However, he predated the development of that peculiar approach to apologetics begun by Cornelius Van Til in Presbyterian circles in the 1920s known as presuppositional apologetics. According to presuppositional apologetics, the way to defend the existence of God and the truth of the Bible is simply to assume it. Alexander follows the classical approach to apologetics known as evidential apologetics. Modern advocates of evidential apologetics include such scholars as John W. Montgomery, Normal Geisler, and Josh McDowell.

It is Impossible to Banish All Religion from the World

Alexander shows that it not only is impossible to banish all religion from the world, but that it would be the greatest calamity which could befall the human race if it were possible.

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