Tulip The Doctrines of Grace

Warfield on Calvinism

The theology of the great Reformer, John Calvin (1509-1564), is the foundation of the confessional standards of Presbyterian and Reformed churches. Both Calvin's theology and modern Reformed theology address most of the categories of systematic theology. However, in the area of soteriology, or the doctrine of salvation, it is common to summarize Calvinism under five topics: total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, and perseverance of the saints, the famous TULIP. This page contains a number of papers explaining and defending these five doctrines.



Nature of Our Reprint

Ken Morgan

"The Best Personal Testimony to Calvinism Is Given By an Arminian!"

Original Paper

Charles Spurgeon

"A Defence of Calvinism"

We have copied a small booklet entitled "A Defence [sic] of Calvinism" printed by Word of Truth Publications (1977). On the title page, the booklet publisher writes, "This article is an exact reprint from Chapter 13 of the autobiography of C. H. Spurgeon, Vol. I, entitled The Early Years," published by Banner of Truth.

A. N. Martin

"The Practical Implications of Calvinism"

From The Banner of Truth Trust, 1979.

W. J. Seaton

"The Five Points of Calvinism"

Complete reproduction of a small booklet that gives a brief overview and defense of each of the five points of the TULIP.

Charles C. Ryrie

"Total Depravity"

The "T" in TULIP: "Total Depravity"

Baker's Dictionary of Theology, ed. Everett F Harrison (Baker, 1960)

Evan Probert

"Human Depravity"

The "T" in TULIP: "Total Depravity"

A sermon delivered at Charles Spurgeon's Bible conference held in London, April 11, 1861

Joseph Stibbs Christmas

"The Distinction Between Natural and Moral Inability"

The "T" in TULIP: "Total Depravity"

This is a condensation of two sermons delivered by Rev. Christmas in The American Presbyterian Church, Montreal, Dec. 9, 1827. Note: The material has been condensed, and liberty has been taken for some light editing.

It should also be noted that not all Calvinists will agree with Rev. Christmas. However, he is a Calvinist, and has an interesting view of "inability," or total depravity.

L. Berkhof


The "U" in TULIP: "Unconditional Election"

Louis Berkhof was for many years professor of systematic theology at Calvin Theological Seminary. His book, Systematic Theology (1941), is considered a classic in the field.

J. I. Packer

"Introductory Essay"

The "L" in TULIP: "Limited Atonement"

This is Packer's introductory essay (1959) to the book, The Death of Death in the Death of Christ by John Owen (1647). Many scholars consider this essay itself worth the price of the book. The doctrine of "limited atonement" is no doubt the most maligned aspect of Calvinism by non-Calvinists. Simply put, it states that the intent of the atonement was to secure salvation of the elect rather than simply to provide salvation for all. Packer explains and defends the doctrine in some depth, and Owen addresses every agrument that has ever been brought against it.

George Hill

"Particular Redemption"

The "L" in TULIP: "Limited Atonement"

Chapter VI from Book IV of Lectures in Divinity, 2nd ed., by George Hill (New York: Robert Carter & Brothers, 1854). Note: The text has not been modified, except that punctuation and KJV-era pronouns and verb forms have been modernized and long paragraphs have been divided.

John Murray

"Irresistible Grace"

The "I" in TULIP: "Irresistible Grace"

John Murray was professor of systematic theology at Westminster Theological Seminary, and was a theologian of the highest order. He is the author of the classic, Redemption Accomplished and Applied (Eerdmans, 1955), and an outstanding commentary on the book of Romans in the NIC series edited by F. F. Bruce (Eerdmans, 1959, 1965). This article is from Soli Deo Gloria: Essays in Reformed Theology: Festschrift for John H. Gerstner, ed. R. C. Sproul (Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1976).

William O'Neill

"The Final Perseverance of Believers in Christ Jesus"

The "P" in TULIP: "Perseverance of the Saints"

A sermon delivered at Charles Spurgeon's Bible conference held in London, April 11, 1861

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